Artificial stimulation

Artificial stimulation

Electrical Stimulation

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Electrical stimulation of neural tissue has been utilized experimentally for more than a century to either probe neural circuitry or create desired percepts as well as clinically to alleviate unwanted symptoms/behaviors associated with neurological disorders. Despite the ubiquity of its use, little is known about precisely how electrical stimulation activates neural pathways and how this activation leads to perception. In this work, we have compared the behavioral and electrophysiological effects of symmetric and asymmetric current waveform shape in neural microstimulation as well as directly compared electrical and optical stimulation in the thalamocortical pathway.

Q. Wang, D. C. Millard, H. J. V. Zheng, G. B. Stanley. Voltage sensitive dye imaging reveals improved topographic activation of cortex in response to manipulation of thalamic microstimulation paramters, J. Neural Engineering, 9, 026008, 2012. PDF

D. R. Ollerenshaw, B. A. Bari, D. C. Millard, L. E. Orr, Q. Wang, and G. B. Stanley, Detection of tactile inputs in the rat vibrissa pathway, J. Neurophysiol., 108, 479-490, 2012. PDF

D. C. Millard, Q. Wang, C. A. Gollnick, and G. B. Stanley. System identification of the nonlinear dynamics in the thalamocortical circuit in response to patterned thalamic microstimulation in-vivo, J Neural Eng., Dec;10(6):066011, 2013.PDF

D. C. Millard, C. J. Whitmire, C. A. Gollnick, C. J. Rozell, G. B. Stanley, Electrical and optical activation of mesoscale neural circuits with implications for coding, J Neurosci 35(47):15702-15715, 2015 PDF

 

Optical Stimulation

PixelatedHistology_LabPosterUsing optogenetic techniques, we are capable of activating (or inhibiting) cells using precise optical stimulation while simultaneously recording the electrophysiological response of the neurons. We have implemented these methodologies in the thalamocortical pathway to modulate information transmission while examining the underlying mechanisms of sensory encoding.

D. C. Millard, C. J. Whitmire, C. A. Gollnick, C. J. Rozell, G. B. Stanley, Electrical and optical activation of mesoscale neural circuits with implications for coding, J Neurosci 35(47):15702-15715, 2015 PDF

C. J. Whitmire, C. Waiblinger, C. Schwarz, G. Stanley. Information Coding Through Adaptive Gating of Synchronized Thalamic Bursting, Cell Reports 14, 1-13, 2016. PDF

J. P. Newman, M. Fong, D. C. Millard, C. J. Whitmire,  G. B. Stanley, S. M. Potter, Optogenetic feedback control of neuronal firing, eLife 4:e07192, 2015. PDF